How to Use CSS3 2D and 3D Transforms

Eleftheria Batsou
7 min readFeb 9, 2024


This article is about how to use CSS3 2D and 3D transforms to create innovative and interactive designs. We’ll start with the basics, explore practical applications, and discuss the challenges you might face. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced developer, you’ll find insights to enhance your CSS skills.

Basic Concepts in CSS3 2D Transforms

The Transform Property

The transform property in CSS3 allows you to modify the coordinate space of the CSS visual formatting model. It's a powerful tool that can change the position, size, and orientation of an element. Here's a simple example:

div {
transform: rotate(20deg);

In this example, the div element will be rotated 20 degrees clockwise.

Scale, Rotate, Translate, and Skew

The transform property can take several functions as values, including scale(), rotate(), translate(), and skew().

  • scale(x, y): This function scales an element up or down in size. The first parameter is for width, and the second for height. If you only provide one, it will be used for both dimensions.
div {
transform: scale(2, 1.5);
  • rotate(angle): This function rotates an element clockwise or counterclockwise by a specified number of degrees.
div {
transform: rotate(45deg);
  • translate(x, y): This function moves an element horizontally and vertically. The first parameter is for the horizontal move, and the second for the vertical.
div {
transform: translate(50px, 20px);
  • skew(x-angle, y-angle): This function skews an element along the X and Y axis. The first parameter is for the X axis, and the second for the Y axis.
div {
transform: skew(20deg, 10deg);

Combining 2D Transform Functions

You can combine multiple transform functions in a single transform property. The functions will be applied in the order they are listed.

div {
transform: rotate(45deg) scale(2, 2);

In this example, the div element will first be rotated 45 degrees, then scaled up by 2 times in both dimensions.

The Matrix Function

(This one is not that simple but I decided to add it as it offers a high level of control.)

The matrix() function in CSS3 is a method that can represent any 2D transformation. It takes six parameters, which might seem complex, but it gives you a high level of control over how an element is transformed. The function uses the following form:

div {
transform: matrix(a, b, c, d, e, f);

In this function, a and d are for scaling, b and c are for skewing, and e and f are for translating. By manipulating these values, you can create any 2D transformation effect. Here's an example:

div {
transform: matrix(1, 0, 0, 1, 50, 50);

In this example, the div element will be moved 50 pixels to the right and 50 pixels down (translated), but will not be scaled or skewed because the other values are set to their defaults.

Practical Applications of 2D Transforms

2D transforms can be used to create a variety of creative and interactive designs in web applications. Here are a few practical examples:

  1. Creating a Flip Card:
    2D transforms can be used to create a flip card effect where an element flips over when the user hovers over it. This can be achieved by applying a rotateY() function on hover.
.flip-card:hover .flip-card-inner {
transform: rotateY(180deg);

2. Creating a Zoom Effect:
Using the scale() function, you can create a zoom effect where an image or element increases in size when the user hovers over it.

img:hover {
transform: scale(1.2);

3. Creating a Slide-In Sidebar:
By using the translateX() function, you can create a slide-in sidebar that moves into view when the user clicks a button.

.sidebar {
transform: translateX(-100%);
} {
transform: translateX(0);

4. Creating a Tilt Effect:
By combining rotateX() and rotateY() functions, you can create a 3D tilt effect that responds to the user's mouse movements.

.tilt {
transform: rotateX(20deg) rotateY(20deg);

These are just a few examples of the creative designs you can achieve with 2D transforms. By understanding and applying these transform functions, you can enhance the user experience of your web applications.

Understanding 3D Transforms

3D transforms add a new dimension to your designs. Unlike 2D transforms, which only affect the X and Y axes, 3D transforms also affect the Z axis, allowing for more complex transformations.

The Perspective Property

The perspective property is fundamental to 3D transforms. It defines how far the object is away from the user. The lower the value, the more intense the 3D effect. Without setting a perspective, 3D transforms will look flat.

.container {
perspective: 1000px;

RotateX, RotateY, and RotateZ

The rotateX, rotateY, and rotateZ functions rotate an element around the respective axis. rotateX will tilt an element up and down like a seesaw, rotateY will spin it around its vertical axis, and rotateZ will spin it around its horizontal axis, just like rotate in 2D transforms.

div {
transform: rotateX(45deg) rotateY(45deg) rotateZ(45deg);

TranslateZ and ScaleZ

The translateZ and scaleZ functions move an element along or scale it along the Z-axis, respectively. translateZ will move the element closer or further away from the user, while scaleZ is currently not part of the CSS3 specification.

div {
transform: translateZ(50px);

In this example, the div element will move 50 pixels closer to the user.

The Transform-Style Property

In addition to the other properties and functions, the transform-style property is also essential when working with CSS3 3D transforms. It specifies how nested elements are rendered in 3D space.

.container {
transform-style: preserve-3d;

The preserve-3d value allows for nested elements to be transformed in their own 3D space. Without this property, nested elements would be flattened in the 3D space of their parent, limiting the possibilities for complex 3D transformations.

Practical Applications of 3D Transforms

3D transforms can be employed in a multitude of innovative and interactive designs in web applications. Here are a few practical examples:

Creating a 3D Cube (and Rotating it)

Creating a Flip Animation

Creating a 3D Image Carousel

The Differences Between 2D and 3D Transforms

Both 2D and 3D transforms allow you to manipulate elements. But they operate in different dimensions and offer distinct functionalities.

  1. Dimensions: The most fundamental difference lies in the dimensions they operate within. 2D transforms allow you to move and manipulate elements along the X and Y axes. You can move elements left-right (X-axis) and up-down (Y-axis). On the other hand, 3D transforms introduce a new dimension-the Z-axis. This allows you to move elements towards or away from the viewer, creating a sense of depth.
  2. Transform Functions: 2D transforms use functions like translate(), rotate(), scale(), and skew(), which manipulate elements in two dimensions. In contrast, 3D transforms use functions like translate3d(), rotateX(), rotateY(), rotateZ(), scale3d(), and perspective(), which manipulate elements in three dimensions.
  3. Perspective: The perspective property is unique to 3D transforms. It sets the distance between the viewer and the Z-plane, creating a sense of depth. This property doesn't exist in 2D transforms.
  4. Backface Visibility: In 3D transforms, you can control the visibility of the back face of an element when it’s rotated. This is not applicable in 2D transforms since there’s no concept of depth.
  5. Nested Elements: In 3D transforms, using the transform-style: preserve-3d property allows nested elements to maintain their 3D position. In 2D transforms, nested elements are flattened and do not maintain a 3D position.

Remember, while 3D transforms offer more visual possibilities, they also require more computational power. Therefore, use them judiciously to maintain good performance in your web applications.

Common Challenges and Solutions While Working with 2D and 3D Transforms

While CSS 2D and 3D transforms empower you to create engaging, interactive web designs, you may encounter several challenges. Here are some common issues and potential solutions:

  1. Performance Issues: Transforms, especially 3D, can consume significant computational resources, leading to performance issues. To mitigate this, use transforms judiciously and optimize your code. Consider using the will-change property to inform the browser which properties are likely to be manipulated, allowing it to optimize performance ahead of time.
  2. Cross-Browser Compatibility: Not all browsers support all transform functions, or they may interpret them differently. Always test your designs in multiple browsers and consider using vendor prefixes or fallbacks to ensure compatibility.
  3. Nested Elements: When transforming an element, its children can sometimes behave unexpectedly, especially in 3D space. This is often due to the parent’s transform context influencing the children. To counteract this, you may need to reset the transform context for nested elements using transform-style: flat.
  4. Positioning and Overlapping: Transformed elements can overlap or disrupt the normal document flow. To control the stacking order of elements, use the z-index property. To prevent disruption of the document flow, consider using position: absolute or position: relative.
  5. Backface Visibility: In 3D transforms, the backface of an element can become visible when rotated. If this is not desired, use backface-visibility: hidden to hide the backface.

By understanding these common challenges and their solutions, you can more effectively leverage the power of 2D and 3D transforms in your web designs.


In conclusion, CSS3 2D and 3D transforms open up a world of possibilities for creative and interactive web design. By understanding the basic concepts, practical applications, and potential challenges, you can harness the power of these transforms to enhance your web applications.

Whether you’re designing in two dimensions or adding depth with 3D, transforms can take your designs to the next level. Remember to consider performance and cross-browser compatibility to ensure an optimal user experience.

👋 Hello, I’m Eleftheria, Community Manager, developer, public speaker, and content creator.

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Originally published at on February 9, 2024.



Eleftheria Batsou

Hi, I’m a community manager and an app developer/UX researcher by passion. I love learning, teaching and sharing. My passions are tech, UX, arts & working out.